aria2 on Raspberry Pi | Installation and Troubleshooting

Installing aria2 on Raspberry Pi

aria2 is a lightweight multi-protocol & multi-source command-line download utility. It supports HTTP/HTTPS, FTP, SFTP, BitTorrent and Metalink. aria2 can be manipulated via built-in JSON-RPC and XML-RPC interfaces. They said.


First thing first, always update your repository.

sudo apt-get update

Next, download aria2.

sudo apt-get install aria2

Now, we make a config file for aria2. First, make the directory for it.

sudo mkdir /home/pi/.aria2

And make the config file.

sudo nano /home/pi/.aria2/aria2.conf

Here’s my configuration, you can always configure it yourself using this guide.


Now, we make aria2 can run on boot. First, make init.d file.

sudo nano /etc/init.d/aria2

Here’s my script:

#! /bin/sh
# /etc/init.d/aria2

# Provides: aria2cRPC
# Required-Start: $network $local_fs $remote_fs
# Required-Stop: $network $local_fs $remote_fs
# Default-Start: 2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop: 0 1 6
# Short-Description: aria2c RPC init script.
# Description: Starts and stops aria2 RPC services.

case “$1” in
echo -n “Starting aria2c daemon ”
umask 0000
aria2c –daemon=true –enable-rpc –rpc-listen-all -D –conf-path=/home/pi/.aria2/aria2.conf
echo -n “Shutting down aria2c daemon ”
/usr/bin/killall aria2c
sleep 3
echo $”Usage: $0 {start|stop|restart}”
exit $RETVAL

Now change aria2’s init.d script permission so it can run as executable.

sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/aria2

Make aria2 run on boot.

sudo update-rc.d aria2 defaults

Now reboot your Raspberry Pi

sudo shutdown -r now

You can always access aria2 on local network using this webgui provided by ziahamza.
To configure the webgui, go to Setting>Connection Setting.
Enter the host, in this case your Raspberry Pi IP address. And your aria2 port which is inside your aria2.conf, in this case 6800.


1. Download was not successful, download directory are external harddrive
Open aria2.conf and change file-allocation=falloc to file-allocation=none


10 Best Grammar Resources for English Language Learners

English is already the most common second language (by number of speakers) in the world, and more people begin studying it every day. Fortunately, the availability of learning resources is growing right along with the number of English learners. The publishing industry, web entrepreneurs, respected institutions, and enthusiasts who just want to help are producing a staggering amount of materials aimed at getting people to understand, speak, and write in English. Some of the materials are good, some of them not so much, and to help you figure out which is which, we’ve compiled a list of the ten best resources you could be using to learn English grammar.

Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. and E.B. White

The Elements of Style, commonly known as “Strunk and White,” is a classic style guide every American student is familiar with. It helped shape how the English language is used in the United States, for better or for worse, and as such is a required read for English language learners.

Oxford Modern English Grammar by Bas Aarts

Oxford Modern English Grammar is a precious tool for any English language learner who needs a deeper understanding of how the English language works. It covers both British English and American English, and it uses examples from written and spoken English to explain the most basic grammar points as well the most complex.

Purdue Online Writing Lab

From grammar to individual resources for English language learners, professionals, and English teachers, Purdue OWL is as comprehensive as English learning resources can get.

Grammar Exercises from the University of Bristol’s Faculty of Arts

Learning and testing go hand in hand. The University of Bristol’s Faculty of Arts hosts extensive grammar learning materials on their website, which include exercises to help you practice using punctuation, discern between commonly confused words, use the subjunctive, and plenty other things.

Grammar Monster

Grammar Monster is a website that offers both quick information and detailed explanations about everything that has to do with grammar. Plus, it also has a short test for each of its sections, so you can gauge how well you understood the section’s contents. is not the place to go looking for lessons on English grammar, but as far as grammar glossaries go, it hosts a very comprehensive one. The site also offers a vast number of tests and quizzes that can keep you occupied for a long time. is a website with a very simple layout that allows you to navigate through it quickly. Even though the website’s materials aren’t organized in the form of lessons, they are written in simple, easy-to-understand language, so you can use them as a learning resource.

Oxford Dictionaries is a fun website where you can read the Oxford Dictionaries’ blog, watch their videos, and find a dictionary that can help you learn new words. There’s also a grammar section where you can learn everything you need to know about English grammar.

British Council

The British Council has a long tradition of helping people around the world learn English, and their website contains everything from lessons, grammar explanations, and a glossary to games and apps. It’s an excellent resource for English language learners of all proficiency levels and from all walks of life.

Cambridge Apps

Cambridge University Press’s Grammar in Use series of apps contains three apps: one for beginners, one for intermediate learners, and one for advanced English language learners, each corresponding to a book published by CUP. While the apps do not contain all the materials from the books, they are chock-full of activities that can help you practice English grammar anytime, anywhere.

Intermediate Grammar – Adverbs of quantity part I

Well, look who it is!

This lesson in an intermediate class and it is all about adverbs of quantity. If you are not sure of your English level, take our test!

So, who remembers what an adverb is? That’s right! It’s a word that describes a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or a sentence and that is often used to show time, manner, place, or degree.

As you know, you can find all of this information, plus speaking exercises, writing exercises, vocabulary exercises and more on the ABA English Course Unit 75 “Albert the Robot”.

Adverbs of quantity – very, so, too

Ok, so we just saw what adverbs are. They are used to say how something happens or is done, and they usually end in -ly, for example: “quickly” or “slowly“.

Adverbs of quantity indicate the degree to which something is done or is.

The adverbs “very”, “so” and “too” usually go with adjectives.

For example:

“That shop is very cheap”

“This drink has too much sugar in it”

“My friend is so generous”

Adverbs of quantity – enough and not enough

As we know, adverbs of quantity go before the adjective except “enough” which comes after.

For example:

“She’s smart enough to go to university”

“She’s not smart enough to go to university”

Adverbs of quantity – quite, rather, pretty and fairly

First of all, let’s look at the meaning because some of these adverbs are not well-known:

Quite – to a very noticeable degree or extent.

Rather – to some degree or extent.

Pretty – to some degree or extent but not very or extremely.

Fairly – to some degree or extent but not very or extremely : to a reasonable or moderate extent.

You might have noticed they are quite similar. “Fairly” and “pretty” are often used synonymously, and so are “rather” and “quite”.

For example:

“She is quite sure she has lost her bag”

“Lucy is rather silly”

“The exam was pretty difficult”

“The riding test was fairly easy”

Adverbs of quantity – much, a lot, a bit, a little

You have already studied these as quantifiers in unit 29. However, they can also be adverbs of quantity when used with an adjective.

For example:

“It’s a pretty good movie but it’s a bit too long”

“My German is much more fluent than my Spanish”

“A bit” and “a little” mean the same thing and so do “much” and “a lot”.


YEEEES! You did it! You have learned all about adverbs of quantity.

In Unit 75 “Albert the Robot”, you will see a conversation take place in a shop. Find out how the salesman convinces the lady to buy a robot! By watching the ABA Film, you will practice your listening comprehension. Record your voice and compare phrases to improve your speaking and learn how to write correctly. You will also gain fluency by interpreting roles and then you will learn the grammar and new vocabulary.

So remember: if you enjoyed this lesson and want to see many more conversation examples, don’t forget to sign up! (it’s free!)


What is a Pronoun?

Give me two pronouns. Who me?
That’s Not My Job! This is a story about four people named Everybody, Somebody, Anybody and Nobody.

Pronoun Comparison
Infographic illustrating different types and uses of pronouns

Pronoun Case
subjective, objective, possessive

Pronouns Quiz
Test yourself on the above points

Difference Between Been and Being

Been vs. Being

The proper usage of grammar has been a very big issue, most especially for those who are not native English speakers. It has also been a challenge for many, as to how to properly use some of the English language’s tenses, when there seems to be a lot more than just the plain old past, present and future tenses. In this regard, two words have been quite a nuisance for English beginners, and these are been and being.

If you are confused with the usage of the two, here is a simplified explanation of its proper usage and differences. Foremost, both words are classified as participles, which is simply explained as their ‘to be’ notations. Being is specifically identified as the present participle, whereas been is the past participle. In this connection, it is important to note that almost all present participles have their verb forms ending in ‘ing’, like walking and dancing, (so these verbs are in their present participle tense). The ending of past participles, on the other hand, happen to be in ‘ed’ form, like walked or danced, but there are a few irregular notations, such as swum and spoken.

Being as the present participle, can be used in situations that happen in the present, in a continuous or progressive sense, and in the passive voice or tone. For example, French subjects are being taught in Washington. Thus, it is clear that the action is being done in a continuous fashion. Similarly, being can also be applied in past situations that are still continuous, like, ‘French subjects were being taught when I came to Washington’. Clearly, it is evident that the action was continuous at a certain point in the past.

On the contrary, been as the past participle, and in its passive voice, is applicable in many tenses or situations like the following:

Ø Present perfect tense ‘“ She’s been to Washington thrice.

Ø Present perfect progressive tense ‘“ She’s been working in Washington thrice.

Ø Past perfect tense ‘“ She’s never been in Washington before.

Ø Past perfect progressive tense ‘“ When she came to Washington for the first time, she had been learning French for four years.

Ø Present perfect tense in its passive notation ‘“ French students have been educated sufficiently.

Ø Past perfect tense in its passive form ‘“ John did very well in his exam. The lesson had been taught very objectively.

In summary:

1. Being is present participle, whereas been is past participle.

2. Been can be applied to more tenses compared to being.

Read more: Difference Between Been and Being | Difference Between

Difference Between Going To and Present Continuous

The present continuous tense and the phrase ‘going to’ can overlap at times. Both of them are used to talk about future decisions. The present continuous tense has more possible uses than that, but when used to talk about the future, it does have a different meaning.

Present continuous is, essentially, when the present participle form of a verb – which is usually the one that ends in –ing – is used with a present-tense form of ‘to be’: ‘am’, ‘are’, and ‘is’.

“I am watching television.”

There are a few verbs that cannot be used as a continuous form, which are known as non-continuous. They generally represent things that are not actions that can be seen, such as emotions, desires, or possession. All of those things – loving, wanting, owning – are abstract, while most normal verbs – running, jumping, reading – are concrete actions that you can see someone doing.

The first use of present continuous is to express that an action is happening at the present time, and that it is ongoing.

“She is watering the garden.”

Secondly, it can be used to talk about a bigger project that is in progress. These are usually things that will take a long time to complete, even if they are not being worked on at the time of speaking.

“I am writing a novel.”

It can also be used to talk about a recurring behavior with an adverb like ‘always’ or ‘constantly’, which are placed between the ‘to be’ verb and the present participle. This is almost always used to express irritation at that behavior, and it’s most often used in the third person.

“He’s always changing the subject when I try to talk about my writing.” 

Finally, we have the use that overlaps with ‘going to’: actions that will happen in the near future.

“We can’t do that, because you’re visiting your mother this weekend.” 

‘Going to’, as mentioned above, means something similar to the last example. It is a future tense, and talks about things that will happen because they have been planned,

“I am going to study pre-law.”

It can also mean things that have been predetermined in another way, such as by fate or because other things are pointing toward it happening.

“It is going to rain tomorrow.”

It does look like an example of a present continuous verb, since ‘going to’ is the present participle of ‘go to’, and it is typically used with a present tense of ‘to be’. It actually can be used as a present continuous verb when the sentence is discussing travelling to another place.

“I am going to London.”

You might notice a difference between the present continuous usage and the normal usage. In the present continuous example, ‘am going to’ is the only verb. The other examples each have another verb: ‘study’, ‘run’, ‘rain’, and ‘end up’. In the other examples, ‘going to’ is a modal or auxiliary verb, which means that it is used to modify other verbs.

There is also a difference between using ‘going to’ and a present continuous verb.

“I am going to get a cat.”

“I am getting a cat.”

The second sentence is about getting a cat and the first sentence places more emphasis on the ‘going to’ part. The first sentence focuses more on the decision to get a cat, while the second focuses more on the act of getting the cat.

To summarize, the present continuous form is used to talk about things that are happening, whether in the moment, over a long period of time, or are recurring. It can also be used to talk about future events. ‘Going to’ modifies other verbs to make them future tense. When talking about future events, a present continuous emphasizes the events while ‘going to’ is more about the decision to make those evens happen.

Read more: Difference Between Going To and Present Continuous | Difference Between

Difference Between “Have To” and Must”


“Have to” and “must” are very similar in meaning and can often times be used interchangeably. You can say: “She must go to the store” and “She has to go to the store.” The meanings here are the same. As such, many people use them in this way with no distinction. There are some differences that need to be noted, however, to use them properly.

“Must” is an example of a modal verb. Here are some examples of other modal verbs: can, could, shall, should, ought to, will, would, and might. They are used to with other verbs to express ideas like possibility and necessity. It should be noted that “have to” functions as a verb.

“Have to” serves to convey the idea of necessity. For example: “You have to go to the store.” And “I have to remember the password.” These sentences help the reader or listener to understand that it is necessary go to the store and to remember the password. “Have to” can also be used to strongly recommend that someone do or try something. “You have to see that movie, it was great.”

“Have to” can also be used with “to do with” to mean to deal with or concern something. For example: “What does this movie have to do with that book?” This shows that the movie and the play may or may not be related based on the context.

On the other hand, “must” is used to convey a stronger meaning than simply “have to”, it’s more forceful. “You must be here by 1:00pm.” In this sentence, the use of “must” gives more import to the need to be here by 1:00pm. However, it can also be used to show that something is logically the result of something else. For example, “The dog is barking, someone must be at the door.” Here we see that because the dog is barking, the logical conclusion to draw is that someone is at the door.

“Must” can also be used to emphasize a statement. For example: “I must say, this is an excellent meal” or “I must warn you, it’s dangerous in that part of town”. “Must” can also be used to express annoyance at some action, used primarily in American English. For example: “Must you play your music so loudly?” “Must” can also be combined with certain adjectives or nouns to denote things that are highly recommended as well. For example “That’s a must-see movie.” This cannot be done with the word “have”.

It should be noted that there is a difference in the negative forms. “Must not” is used much like a command, for example: “You must not smoke in here.” It’s letting you know that it is not permitted to smoke in here and that it is prohibited. But “not have to” isn’t quite as strong or limiting. For example, “You don’t have to pick me up at exactly 5:00.” This indicates that the individual is not required to pick the person up exactly at 5:00 but they can if they choose to.

While “must” and “have to” can often be used interchangeably, there are marked differences between the two. Knowing how they are used will give you more variety in speaking and writing in English. It will make your English much richer and full of meaning.

Read more: Difference Between “Have To” and Must” | Difference Between

Difference Between Should and Must

Should vs Must

The words “should” and “must” are modal auxiliary verbs or simply modals. They provide information about the function of the main verb following it. Both “should” and “must” are similar in meaning except that “must” is a much stronger word as compared to “should.”

“Should” is the past tense of “shall.”  “Should” is used to denote recommendations, advice, or to talk about what is generally right or wrong within the permissible limits of society. For instance:

  • You should chew your food properly.
  • We should respect our parents.
  • You should stop smoking.
  • You must clean our car regularly.

In all these statements, there is a probability or recommendation of some kind.

“Must” is used to talk about an obligation or a necessity. It is used when people are compelled to do something. For instance:

  • You must clean the house as your mom is not well.

Here, it is imperative that you clean the house or else the house won’t be cleaned and remain untidy.

  • We must obey the law.

This statement compels us to abide by the law or we will have to face the punishment enforced by the law.

  • You must hurry if you have to catch the train.

In this statement, it is emphasized that you certainly have to move quickly as you are running late. If you do not hurry up, you will miss the train. This sentence is an example of a compellation for achieving a certain aim.

  • One must keep his word.

Here again the sentence directs that people are required to or are compelled to do something (here it is keeping one’s word) by the use of threat or force.

The main difference between the two words “should” and “must” is that “must” is a stronger word, as mentioned before. The probability of “must” is much more than that of “should.” For instance:

  • You must do your homework now. (It is already late, and if you do not start doing your work now, you will not be able to finish your work on time. This will lead to punishment or a penalty.)

You should do your homework now. (It is the right time that you start doing your work.)

  • You must rest. (You are not well, and if you continue working, your health is going to get worse.)

You should take a rest. (You are tired, and if you do not take a rest, you are going to get sick.)

The synonyms of “should” include: ought, allow, feel, leave, become, suffer, sustain, allow, etc. The synonyms for “must” are: condition, demand, necessity, requirement, requisite, obligation, etc.


  1. “Must” represents more of an obligation while “should” represents a probability or recommendation.

Read more: Difference Between Should and Must | Difference Between

Exceptions for Conditional Sentences

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So far you have only learned the basic rules for Conditional Sentences. It depends on the context, however, which tense to use. So sometimes it’s possible for example that in an IF Clause Type I another tense than Simple Present is used, e.g. Present Progressive or Present Perfect.

Conditional Sentences Type I (likely)

Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
future action Simple Present If the book is interesting, … Future I …I will buy it.
Imperative …buy it.
Modal Auxiliary …you can buy it.
action going on now Present Progressive If he is snoring, … Future I …I will wake him up.
Imperative …wake him up.
Modal Auxiliary …you can wake him up.
finished action Present Perfect If he has moved into his new flat, … Future I …we will visit him.
Imperative …visit him.
Modal Auxiliary …we can visit him.
improbable action should + Infinitive If she should win this race, … Future I …I will congratulate her.
Imperative …congratulate her.
Modal Auxiliary …we can congratulate her.
present facts Simple Present If he gets what he wants, … Simple Present …he is very nice.

Conditional Sentences Type II (unlikely)

Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
present / future event Simple Past If I had a lot of money, … Conditional I …I would travel around the world.
consequence in the past Simple Past If I knew him, … Conditional II …I would have said hello.

Conditional Sentences Type II (impossible)

Condition refers to: IF Clause Main Clause
present Past Perfect If I had known it, … Conditional I …I would not be here now.
past Past Perfect If he had learned for the test, … Conditional II …he would not have failed it.


Conditional Sentences—Rules You Need to Know

  • There are four types of conditional sentences.
  • It’s important to use the correct structure for each of these different conditional sentences because they express varying meanings.
  • Pay attention to verb tense when using different conditional modes.
  • Use a comma after the if-clause when the if-clause precedes the main clause.

Conditional sentences are statements discussing known factors or hypothetical situations and their consequences. Complete conditional sentences contain a conditional clause (often referred to as the if-clause) and the consequence. Consider the following sentences:

If a certain condition is true, then a particular result happens.
I would travel around the world if I won the lottery.
When water reaches 100 degrees, it boils.

What Are the Different Types of Conditional Sentences? There are four different types of conditional sentences in English. Each expresses a different degree of probability that a situation will occur or would have occurred under certain circumstances.

  • Zero Conditional Sentences
  • First Conditional Sentences
  • Second Conditional Sentences
  • Third Conditional Sentences

Let’s look at each of these different types of conditional sentences in more detail.

How to Use Zero Conditional Sentences

Zero conditional sentences express general truths—situations in which one thing always causes another. When you use a zero conditional, you’re talking about a general truth rather than a specific instance of something. Consider the following examples:

If you don’t brush your teeth, you get cavities.
When people smoke cigarettes, their health suffers.

There are a couple of things to take note of in the above sentences in which the zero conditional is used. First, when using the zero conditional, the correct tense to use in both clauses is the simple present tense. A common mistake is to use the simple future tense.

When people smoke cigarettes, their health will suffer.

Secondly, notice that the words if and when can be used interchangeably in these zero conditional sentences. This is because the outcome will always be the same, so it doesn’t matter “if” or “when” it happens.

How to Use First Conditional Sentences

First conditional sentences are used to express situations in which the outcome is likely (but not guaranteed) to happen in the future. Look at the examples below:

If you rest, you will feel better.
If you set your mind to a goal, you’ll eventually achieve it.

Note that we use the simple present tense in the if-clause and simple future tense in the main clause—that is, the clause that expresses the likely outcome. This is how we indicate that under a certain condition (as expressed in the if-clause), a specific result will likely happen in the future. Examine some of the common mistakes people make using the first conditional structure:

If you will rest, you will feel better.
If you rest, you will feel better.

Explanation: Use the simple present tense in the if-clause.

If you set your mind to a goal, you eventually achieve it.
If you set your mind to a goal, you’ll eventually achieve it.

Explanation: Use the zero conditional (i.e., simple present + simple present) only when a certain result is guaranteed. If the result is likely, use the first conditional (i.e., simple present + simple future).

How to Use Second Conditional Sentences

Second conditional sentences are useful for expressing outcomes that are completely unrealistic or will not likely happen in the future. Consider the examples below:

If I inherited a billion dollars, I would travel to the moon.
If I owned a zoo, I might let people interact with the animals more.

Notice the correct way to structure second conditional sentences is to use the simple past tense in the if-clause and an auxiliary modal verb (e.g., could, should, would, might) in the main clause (the one that expresses the unrealistic or unlikely outcome). The following sentences illustrate a couple of the common mistakes people make when using the second conditional:

If I inherit a billion dollars, I would travel to the moon.
If I inherited a billion dollars, I would travel to the moon.

Explanation: When applying the second conditional, use the simple past tense in the if-clause.

If I owned a zoo, I will let people interact with the animals more.
If I owned a zoo, I might let people interact with the animals more.

Explanation: Use a modal auxiliary verb in the main clause when using the second conditional mood to express the unlikelihood that the result will actually happen.

How to Use Third Conditional Sentences

Third conditional sentences are used to explain that present circumstances would be different if something different had happened in the past. Look at the following examples:

If you had told me you needed a ride, I would have left earlier.
If I had cleaned the house, I could have gone to the movies.

These sentences express a condition that was likely enough, but did not actually happen in the past. The speaker in the first sentence was capable of leaving early, but did not. Along these same lines, the speaker in the second sentence was capable of cleaning the house, but did not. These are all conditions that were likely, but regrettably did not happen.

Note that when using the third conditional, we use the past perfect (i.e., had + past participle) in the if-clause. The modal auxiliary (would, could, shoud, etc.) + have + past participle in the main clause expresses the theoretical situation that could have happened.

Consider these common mistakes when applying the third conditional:

If you would have told me you needed a ride, I would have left earlier.
If you had told me you needed a ride, I would have left earlier.

Explanation: With third conditional sentences, do not use a modal auxiliary verb in the if-clause.

If I had cleaned the house, I could go to the movies.
If I had cleaned the house, I could have gone to the movies.

Explanation: The third conditional mood expresses a situation that could have only happened in the past if a certain condition had been met. That’s why we use the modal auxiliary verb + have + the past participle.

Exceptions and Special Cases When Using Conditional Sentences

As with most topics in the English language, conditional sentences often present special cases in which unique rules must be applied.

Use of the Simple Future in the If-Clause

Generally speaking, the simple future should be used only in the main clause. One exception is when the action in the if-clause will take place after the action in the main clause. For example, consider the following sentence:

If aspirin will ease my headache, I will take a couple tonight.

The action in the if-clause is the aspirin easing the headache, which will take place only after the speaker takes them later that night.

“Were to” in the If-Clause

The verb phrase were to is sometimes used in conditional sentences when the likely or unlikely result is particularly awful or unthinkable. In this case, were to is used to place emphasis on this potential outcome. Consider these sentences:

If I were to be sick, I would miss another day of work.
If she were to be late again, she would have to have a conference with the manager.
If the rent were to have been a penny more, they would not have been able to pay it.

Note that the emphatic “were to” can be used to describe hypothetical scenarios in the present, future, and past.

Punctuating Conditional Sentences

Despite the complex nature of conditional sentences, punctuating them properly is really simple!

Here’s the skinny:

Use a comma after the if-clause when the if-clause precedes the main clause.

If I’d had time, I would have cleaned the house.

If the main clause precedes the if-clause, no punctuation is necessary.

I would have cleaned the house if I’d had time.